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How to hire Professional Plumber for Remodeling Your Bathroom?


How to hire Professional Plumber for Remodeling Your Bathroom?

If you want to remodel your bathroom and offer it a trending look, hiring a professional plumber is essential. There are many difficult operations such as tiling, piping, and plumbing that only a skilled professional can handle. However, you need to consider plenty of things before hiring a plumber.

You need to check their reputation, experience, quality of service, and many other things before hiring them for your project. Let us know about everything that homeowners much take into consideration while hiring a professional plumber.



Most professional handyman service providers have a state license that allows them to offer their services to the public. Some states have a licensing website that lists all the licensed plumbers and handyman services. If there is such a site for your state, you can check the list of plumbers to find one for your remodeling project.

Ask your friends and neighbors

The easiest way to find a good plumber is to ask your friends and neighbors. Ask them to know about plumbers whom they have hired in the past and their experience with them. You need to consider that you want to hire a plumber for remodeling and not for repair. You should look for a plumber who can visit at the right time and perform high-quality work.

Research online

Another easy way to find any handyman service providers is to research online. Most reputed contractors have an online presence in the form of websites, or they have listed themselves on various business listing sites. Therefore, you can find such listing websites and see the top listed plumbers. You can note their phone numbers and start calling them to inquire about their services and charges.

Make calls


After finding some reputed plumbers, you need to make calls to them and inquire about their services. Some of them might not offer remodeling services. Therefore, calling them enables you to know everything you want. Make a list of everything you want to inquire like prices, services, experience, etc. Also, communicate your requirements as it also enables them to know whether they can offer you their services or not.


Nothing can match an experienced plumber’s quality and service. More the experience of a plumber, better the performance that you can expect from him. If you can look for companies in your region that provide plumbing services, ask them about their plumbers’ experience, not just the business. They could send a new plumber to your home with little work experience. Therefore, it is essential to know the experience of plumbers working with a contractor.


Hiring a plumber with insured services is important as it is better for the plumber as well as the homeowner. When working at home, accidents can occur and harm the plumber or your bathroom fixtures. Hiring a plumber with insured services means the homeowner is not liable for any damage or damages. Hence, hiring a plumber with insured services is safe for homeowners as well as plumbers.

Online Reviews

Checking past customer reviews is the perfect way to know the quality of a plumbing service. Check a company’s Google reviews or check them on a review site, but not on their website. You may consider hiring the agency if there are more than 90 percent of the positive reviews. You need to read all the negative reviews, though, to see a company’s issues.

Buy your accessories

Although plumbers can get you all the accessories you want in your new bathroom, they charge you higher than the market price as they get their commissions to form dealers. Therefore, you should get your accessories yourself from an online or physical store. Here also you need to do some research to find the stores that offer you a high discount on bathroom accessories. Doing this will require you to spend some time on research, but can save you hundreds of dollars.

Service Speed

The service speed here doesn’t mean how quickly the plumber operates in your house. It shows how fast they are going to visit your place to address the issue. A leaking pipe or a broken tap can sometimes put you in trouble, particularly if you don’t know the shut-off valve’s position. Therefore, hiring a plumbing company that offers fast services must be taken into consideration.


The price is also important to consider while hiring any services for your home. A high pricing does not mean the highest quality, nor does a low price mean the lowest quality. Nonetheless, an organization with the highest and lowest pricing structure should not be chosen. Choose a company offering quality services like plumbing services Haberfield at reasonable prices. You should never hesitate to spend a few extra dollars on warranty and insured services.



When investigating different companies, you have to consider their employees’ communication, whether you call them on the phone or visit their workplace. The way they interact with you represents their philosophy of work and quality of service. We will give you quality services if they communicate appropriately with you. Through their way of communication, you can get an idea of their services and customer service.

Warranty of service

The trustworthy plumbing companies offer a guarantee of their service. If any problems occur within the warranty period of their job, they can resolve it free of charge. Service costs may be expensive, but the warranty of work offers reliability and reduces the chances of recurring problems. It is the same as the consumer warranty that we purchase from a retailer.

Final Words

These are the things to consider while hiring a professional plumber for remodeling our bathroom. You need to spend some time on research while looking for the right plumber for your project. Asking your friends, neighbors are not enough. You must take all the factors in this post into consideration to be satisfied before hiring a professional for your bathroom renovation. They are to hire an experienced person with a clean background and satisfied customers.

10 Best Landscape Ideas to Make Home Entrance More Beautiful


Home entrance is one of the essential spaces in your home. It is the portal of passage between your home and the outer world. It also reflects your personal style and makes guests feel cheerful and comfortable when they enter the door. So, it should be welcoming to the guests and give the right impression. Let’s check out the awesome ideas for home entry enhancements.

 Do an Impressive Exterior Makeover

Welcoming entryway makes a happy home. So, give your home entry an impressive makeover using bold and bright paint like green or white. You can even coat the shutters in khaki to create a jaw-dropping new look. This happily drives visitors inside. You can add plenty of windows to bring natural light in your space.

Decorate with Feng Shui in Mind

When it comes to decorating your home entry, make sure that it’s built in the right way. This invites positive energy in no time and makes everyone happier and healthier, mainly when they are at home. Also, most of the homes are small, but that does not mean that you can’t make a good impression amongst your guests.

You can make entryway alluring by adding a chic art. It’s also good idea to hire a skilled Feng Shui consultant. They will first examine your home and hunt the areas that block your wealth. They will then give you expert advice about what you can do to fix them.

De-Clutter Daily

Eliminate all the extra stuff you have around your entryway. This will greet visitors with style and also leaves plenty of room to open the main door completely and hassle-free. Also, give your entryway or porch great sweeping from time to time.

Enhance your Walkway

Guide your visitors from the street to the entryway of your home with a clearly marked and well-maintained walkway. Whether your walkway is made using paving stones or concrete slabs, it looks awesome every time someone sees it. Also, make sure that it is 3 to 4 feet wide so that more than two people can easily walk side by side. You can also lure your guests by designing a tailored walkway.

Change the Look of Your Front Door Garden throughout the Year

Create a good impression with a welcoming outdoor garden. It’s also vital to consider seasonal updates like evergreens in winter, mums in fall, and lightning in spring. You can also move the containers to change the look.

Use decorative accents such as dried flower wreaths, cornstalks, or country-style ornament for a great display. It’s a good idea to add a small fountain and best-smelling plants in your garden (like Jasmine, Plumeria, Honeysuckle, Gardenia, Phlox, etc.).

Create an Entertaining Paradise in the Garden

Seating is a vital aspect of any garden.  Every inch of our outdoor space has the potential to create a comfy and cozy space. They are usually used to draw visitors into the garden. They may not sit and relax there, but the temptation is always there. It’s a smart idea to create a romantic seating area in your garden under an arch or arbor covered with scented climbing plants.

You can add everything like sofas to designer egg chairs as per your budget and occasion. There are also diverse styles of freestanding lights you can buy to create an outside living room effect. Moreover, there is no doubt that a bright colored creation can make a garden extremely loving, mainly to the small kids.

Buy an Outdoor Geometric Rug

The floor is an excellent way to add color, softness, and pattern to your entryway. Outdoor geometric rugs make a good statement without uttering a single word and also make space feel comfier the same as the room. They offer interesting patterns and shade that add awesomeness to the home entry. 

The biggest benefit is that it can fit anywhere with so much ease and grace. Today you will find them in a broad assortment of styles – from traditional trellises to modern circles and everywhere in between. However, it’s a good idea to buy durable rugs with softer and brighter tones.

Add Attractive Lights and Greenery

As per Feng Shui, the front door is the mouth of Chi. Thus, it is vital to invite positive energy as well as good luck to your house. Just note that when you put the right things in the right place, this gives a good outcome.

There are tons of freestanding lights and lucky plants for the front door available in diverse styles, budgets, and sizes. Lucky plants usually bring good health and wealth to your home. You can buy them as per your needs.

Good luck plants for home entry include:

  • Lucky Bamboo (Dracaena Braunii)
  • Money plant
  • Jade Plant
  • Magnolia
  • Chrysanthemum
  • Jade Plant
  • Aplsm
  • Snake plant
  • Lotus
  • Plum Blossom

The great way to decorate your front door with Feng Shui plants is to put them in a red-colored vase or pot on the small tables in both the sides of the door to create an outside living room effect. But make sure that their placement does not block the entrance of your home. If this is not possible, paint your front door in red. In fact, you can even have different styles of containers that fit you’re your fences and railings. This helps you to chill out and relax in the fresh air amid your plants.

Brighten with Roses or Bougainvilleas

a) Roses

Classic rosebushes are one of the best house entry landscaping ideas. It brings a sweet scent and colorful structure to your entry and gardens. Allow roses spread freely along the trellises, archways, and fences. They will also add allure to space the moment they burst into bloom.

Best Time to Plant: It’s a good idea to plant roses from late winter or autumn to early spring season in April. But make sure the ground is not very dry, frozen, or wet from the rain. No matter what type of roses you select, make sure it receives direct sunlight (usually 6 hours) daily.

b) Bougainvilleas

Native to South America, Bougainvilleas are vines that grow in the full sunlight and dry and hot temperatures and areas. White wooden arbor draped with scented climbing bougainvilleas creates a warm welcome to the guests. In full bloom, they bring an alluring focal point to the outdoor lounge and home entries. Visitors can enjoy a fragrance as they pass by. They usually need minimal watering and pruning or fertilizer every season. It’s a good idea to plant them near your walls so that they climb well.

Best Time to Plant: You can plant them anytime between May and December. They usually blossom for 11 months if planted under the right conditions.

Use Tree Removal Service

If you are residing in Castle Hill (Australia) and usually strive hard to move fallen dead or damaged trees in the front of your home entrance, then it’s a good idea to hire tree removal Castle Hill service for safe and effective tree removal, stump grinding, tree lopping, land clearing, and pruning in your area. If you fail to do it, this will create unsafe conditions for you and your guests.

Final Words

These are the best ideas to make your home entrance more beautiful. You can hire professional landscapers to make changes in your home entrance and front yard. They are well trained and will do the work quickly without any damage to your garden and home. In fact, they also strictly follow the standard codes of practice. Following these ideas can help homeowners to offer a professional makeover to their home entrance.

11 Outdoor Lighting Designs to Make Your Garden More Beautiful in Night


Outdoor lighting is a part of every house as they offer visibility and make your home look beautiful in the dark. Landscape lighting is a part of outdoor lighting that can enhance the appeal of your garden to a much extent.

Installing the landscape lighting in your garden not only makes it look appealing in the dark but also improves visibility and safety at night. People can use their yard at night for any activity with proper lighting and illumination. Let us check some outdoor lighting designs to make your garden look more appealing at night.

Entry Lighting


The entry lights include fixtures with pathways and uplighting on the rain chain and trees. You can integrate two or more designs of lights to create a more sophisticated and pleasing effect. There are a variety of garden entry lights available in the lighting stores. You can visit a physical store or look online to choose from a wide range of entry lights. Remember, the enter lights are the first elements that guests or visitors will notice while entering your garden at night.

Twinkling Fairy Lights

The twinkling fairy lights are meant for installation on trees and shrubs. These lights can help you create a perfect environment for a party or gathering at night. Creating contrast adds some drama and mystery to the landscaping in the dark. The twinkling fairy lights can create a perfect environment for evenings and romantic meetings in the comfort of your home.

Pathway lights


Paths and walkways are essential parts of a landscape. Whether you have a front yard or a backyard, you need to lighten your pathways to make them visible and walk with comfort. There are special lights designed for paths in the garden that illuminate them and also create a soft elegance. The soft decorative lights only illuminate your pathways without discomforting your eyes. You can install them on both sides of the paths or one side if you have a narrow walkway in your garden.

Illuminate the Water features 

Most modern homes have a water feature in their garden. If you have a fountain or other water features in the garden, you can illuminate them with special lights meant for the same. There are a variety of decorative lights available for water features that you can get from a lighting store. The water features look magical when illuminated with colorful decorative lights. The droplets look like colorful pellets falling from the fountain. Experiment with water feature lights can let you find the perfect spot for their installation to create a magical view at night.

Pool Lights

If you have a pool in your garden, you must consider illuminating it with decorative pool lights. There are underwater lights available in the market that creates a cool and dramatic effect in your pool. It can be challenging to illuminate water from above as water reflects light when it falls on its surface.

Therefore, it is good to use underwater lighting for your garden pool. Blue colored lights are perfect to use underwater. However, it depends on the choice of people, as every homeowner’s color choice is different. You can use some soft lights on the pathways and area on the side of your pool to illuminate them.

Lights for seating space 

If you have a seating area in your garden, you can use soft decorative lights to illuminate the same. Soft lights not only illuminate your seating space but create a perfect spot for evenings and dining time. If you want to install LED lights for your sitting area, make sure they have proper diffusers as LED lights can discomfort your eyes. The illumination for sitting space should neither be too little nor too much. You should have a balance of illumination in your sitting area.

Accent Light

When it comes to decorative lights, accents lights are the best for outdoors. Accent lights create dramatic and pleasing effects for subtle moods when used in a garden. Homeowners also use accent lights in their interior areas, but the accent lights for landscapes are different. They come with adjustable features that make it easy to install them on tree trunks and other garden structures. You can install the modern garden lights on eaves, porch columns, and dormers in your backyard.

Wall Wash Light

If you have a pool in your garden, you must consider illuminating it with decorative pool lights. There are underwater lights available in the market that creates a cool and dramatic effect in your pool. It can be challenging to illuminate water from above as water reflects light when it falls on its surface.

Therefore, it is good to use underwater lighting for your garden pool. Blue colored lights are perfect to use underwater. However, it depends on the choice of people, as every homeowner’s color choice is different. You can use some soft lights on the pathways and area on the side of your pool to illuminate them.

Lights for seating space 

If you have a seating area in your garden, you can use soft decorative lights to illuminate the same. Soft lights not only illuminate your seating space but create a perfect spot for evenings and dining time. If you want to install LED lights for your sitting area, make sure they have proper diffusers as LED lights can discomfort your eyes. The illumination for sitting space should neither be too little nor too much. You should have a balance of illumination in your sitting area.

Accent Light

When it comes to decorative lights, accents lights are the best for outdoors. Accent lights create dramatic and pleasing effects for subtle moods when used in a garden. Homeowners also use accent lights in their interior areas, but the accent lights for landscapes are different. They come with adjustable features that make it easy to install them on tree trunks and other garden structures. You can install the modern garden lights on eaves, porch columns, and dormers in your backyard.

Wall Wash Light


If you want to illuminate your garden, you need to consider lighting the fencings and walls. Wall wash lights are best for illuminating the walls and fencings as they create enough visibility and decoration of your boundaries. A wall wash light creates a uniform flood of light on the walls and fencings and facades of your garden.

Hardscape fixtures

The hardscape fixtures are durable accessories that you can easily conceal under the structural landscape features. You can use them under the masonry walls, benches, deck handrails, posts, columns, and window ledges.

In-Ground lights

There are some areas like lawns and pathways where you need to install lights but don’t want to show them on the surface. For such areas, there are inground lights that do not take space on the surface, but you install them under the ground. In-ground lights fit easily in your lawns and on the sides of your pathways or any other area. These lighting fixtures can also be used in the artificial grass installation in Brisbane or any other location.

Indicator lights

Although most people don’t think or using indicator lights in their gardens, they can be useful in specific areas like pathways and boundaries, or water containing areas. You can use them along the periphery of your pathways, water pool, and fences. People with small gardens don’t need indicator lights, but they are highly useful for directions and special areas in large yards.

Final Words

These are the outdoor lighting ideas for your garden. They offer visibility to your garden spaces and also make them look appealing to guests and visitors. Using these light designs and ideas, homeowners can improve the aesthetic appeal of their landscapes and also the value of their property.

Try These Techniques to Make Your Home More Soundproof


External noise can break the peace of any household and disturb the family members. The sound of vehicles on the road, construction projects, and manufacturing industries can be irritating for families. Therefore, it becomes essential for every family to make their homes soundproof, especially those living in noisy locations.

The homes adjacent to the roads, wedding resorts, and industrial areas are most prone to external noises. If there are children and elders in your home, it can be challenging to live in such areas due to external sounds entering the houses.

There are many ways homeowners can use to make their homes soundproof. Let us check some best techniques to make any house soundproof to prevent the entry of external noises.

Seal the holes in walls


A large wall can block the external noises and the sounds from adjacent areas to a much extent. However, the holes in the walls can make it useless for sound blockage. You must inspect every wall in your house for holes and cracks and fill them with appropriate materials. Use plaster of Paris or standard concrete to fill them. Homeowners can also use sound-absorbing materials like fiberglass batt insulation.

Install an extra drywall

Sounds and noises are vibrations, and you can deaden those using heavy and dense materials in your walls. Although you cannot do anything to the bricks and stones in your walls, you can add another layer of drywall to create a dense barrier to deaden the incoming sounds.

You can install extra drywall with the external walls of your house or to your kid’s rooms where they play music or musical instruments. You will need to repaint and refinish your new drywall and extend the electrical outlets.

Use Mass loaded Vinyl

The mass loaded vinyl is a flexible material used for noise control that comes in 4 feet wide rolls. Homeowners can use it on walls or install them on their floor to help in the absorption of sound. You can sandwich the mass loaded vinyl between the layer of drywall to prevent the transmission of sound dramatically. You can also use the material on your doors and walls with the help of a professional.

Install Acoustic panels


Acoustic panels are best to use in home theaters and auditoriums. They absorb the sound on walls and ceilings before it can bounce back to improve the sound transmission in a room or theater. The acoustic panels not only absorb the sound but also help reduce its transmission through walls. They are made of polypropylene material and come in various thicknesses and sizes.

Install solid core doors

Solid core doors absorb sound much better than hollow core doors. Build a solid core door and install vinyl weather stripping and a bottom sweep and threshold seal if you want to make sure that no noise enters through your window.

Your TV area or music room

Musicians, vloggers, and others whose career needs a recording space can consider their neighbors and soundproof their house, or at least a room. This is intended to minimize the noise they make so as not to disrupt the lives of others living nearby. You can also insulate your music or television room with appropriate methods to prevent spreading the sounds to other areas in the house.

Close the gaps in doors and windows

As with the front door, gaps under the inside doors allow the passage of sound, as if the door was partially open. Fill the gaps with a handmade noise stopper or get one from the market. The noise stoppers are usually attached to the door (with an elastic band), so you don’t need to place them all the time.

Cover the hard surfaces 

Noise reflects on hard surfaces, such as walls, floors, and ceilings, adding to a room’s total noise level. Sounds like voices, tv sound and the noise of vacuum cleaner does not reflect on minimizing sound reflection, covering bare walls, and even ceilings with something fluffy. A shag rug on the ceiling and synthetic rubber mats on the walls softens annoying noise inside the apartment while absorbing uproar from neighboring units as well.

Cover your floor

The interior and exterior floor of your house reflects sounds and allow them to disturb your peace. Nothing muffles the sounds like a carpet in a high-traffic area. So, if you have hard floors, laying a thick carpet on your floor makes sense. But here’s a little-known tip: it will improve your carpet’s noise squashing potential by slipping a dense rug pad below.

Place a bookcase against a wall


Do you have a thin wall between your home and your neighbor’s house? Having a faux built-in wall-to-wall is a sneaky trick that is going to muffle noise from the next-door apartment. The idea is to remove the partition size. Massive materials and objects withstand vibration and thus reduce the transmission of sound. Make sure the edges of the built-in match the walls, floor, and ceiling snugly so that there are no air gaps, another sound path.

Thick Soundproof Curtains

Soundproof window dressings help prevent disturbing your sleep due to the outside noise. For an average size window, an acoustic curtain can weigh 15 pounds and lie against a wall or window trim to block the sound and deflect it outside. Therefore, you can use the thick curtains to cover your windows for better absorption of outside sound.

Noise reduction windows

There are special noise reduction techniques that professionals use while installing your doors and windows. They use sound-absorbing material for sealing your doors and windows so that they close tightly when you shut them, thereby preventing external noises from entering your house. The window noise reduction Melbourne professionals use state of the art techniques to make soundproof doors and windows.

Final Words

These are the techniques you can use to make your home soundproof. Now, as you know these techniques, you can use them in your house or recommend them to your friends and relatives. Using the soundproofing techniques in this post, homeowners can create a calm and peaceful environment in their homes.

Health and Safety


Copper is non-toxic and presents no risks with long term contact. Consequently, the legislative controls and continuing programme of health monitoring needed for site workers and those handling other metals such as lead do not apply to copper workers.

The weight of copper needed to cover a given area is substantially less than that of lead, reducing lifting problems – particularly at high levels. Copper is therefore a safer alternative to lead for flashings and other weatherings – even on non-copper roofs.

Copper maintains a consistent malleability and ‘feel’ which makes manual working entirely predictable. Indeed, hard metal roofing installers show a clear preference towards copper over other metals. It can be worked at all temperatures and, unlike metals such as zinc, does not become brittle and break to form sharp edges in cold weather.

Copper is ideally suited to mechanisation techniques, including preforming of trays and joints in safe locations and the use of automatic seaming machines on roofs, minimising high level work (as recommended by the Health and Safety Executive).

An adult needs 100mg of copper, with 2-3mg consumed daily to replace what is lost by metabolic processes. A deficiency in copper is one factor in the increased risk of developing heart disease.

Copper Roofing Contractors


Contact details for UK copper roofing contractors for projects in the UK and throughout the world.

Select the area of the project for a list of copper roofing contractors who are willing to work in that particular area.

Please note that Copper Development Association does not operate an approvals scheme for copper roofing contractors.

For the UK and Ireland, select region for a list of contractors in that area.

For contractors who work overseas, please see the following lists:



The combination of copper’s properties and recyclability make it a key material for technological innovation and eco-design in renewable energy, communications and automotive applications.

The International Copper Association, Ltd (ICA) runs a technology programme to support research and development and the bringing of new technology to market. Guidelines are set out for those wishing to apply for support from this programme – see below.

Funding for Copper R&D

R&D funding has been made available to researchers in academia or industry through the International Copper Association Technology Programme. Find out more by reading the Technology Roadmap.

Global Call for Proposals

The International Copper Association, Ltd (ICA) regularly announces a Call for Research Proposals related to copper, copper alloys and copper compounds. Also sought are ideas for the design and manufacturing of new products incorporating copper metals. One-year awards of up to US$100,000 are available for the most promising proposals. The ICA may consider an extension of funding or additional funding on projects with significant commercialisation potential that show good initial results. The 2009/2010 call is now closed but ideas related to topics such as these are always welcome:

Project Examples

Copper technology is on the verge of a breakthrough that will allow deep-sea power cables to operate at higher voltages (beyond 170 kilovolts) and at greater depths than ever before.

Design and Manufacture


Copper and copper alloys have a wide range of properties available to a designer. These include the best electrical conductivity of any metal, excellent corrosion resistance in the atmosphere and water, a wide range of colours giving aesthetic appeal and excellent ductility. CDA is able to assist designers in choosing the optimum combination of properties for a specific application as well as advising on the most appropriate manufacturing process.

An important consideration for any designer when selecting materials is recyclability; all copper alloys are fully recyclable, without loss of properties.

www.copperindesign.org – a new website has been launched.

A comprehensive source of information on copper crafting for designers, manufacturers, artists, journalists and all with an interest in copper as an essential feature of the modern design scene. The site features numerous examples of copper in art and design, indoors and outdoors, alongside comments from the artists on their experiences and creative approaches.

Copper Compounds


In addition to their many uses in agriculture and biology, copper salts have an astonishing variety of industrial uses, chiefly of a specialised nature, and there is hardly an industry which does not have some small use for them. The following pages briefly describe a few of the more important copper compounds and list some of their uses with particular reference to copper sulphate. It is worth noting that copper is an indispensable constituent of all living tissues and is essential for the normal growth and wellbeing of plants and animals. Where it is lacking it has to be supplied.

The minute quantities of copper needed for human health are usually obtained through the normal intake of food and water. Copper and its compounds are not toxic like some other metals, such as lead or mercury. There are no records of any occupational diseases attributable to copper among people who have worked for any years with the metal or its salts. Indeed it has sometimes been said that such people often appear healthier and generally suffer less from colds and other ailments. Copper bangles and other adornments are reputed to relieve and prevent rheumatic pains. Copper water storage vessels, copper kettles and copper cooking pans have been used for generations.

Common copper compounds for agricultural and chemical uses are:

  • Anhydrous and monohydrated copper sulphate – see uses of copper sulphate.
  • Copper acetates
  • Cuprous oxide
  • Cupric oxide (black copper oxide)
  • Cupric chloride
  • Copper oxychloride
  • Cuprous chloride
  • Cupric nitrate
  • Copper cyanide
  • Copper soaps
  • Copper naphthenate



Copper is a multi-purpose material whose properties have made it a key component in vehicles since the dawn of the car industry with the Model T Ford in 1916. Today, copper plays a critical role in cars for functionality, efficiency, comfort and safety. Even the most basic model contains some 1 km of wiring, mostly used to carry data, send control signals and supply electrical power. The total weight of copper in a vehicle ranges from 15 kilos for a small car to 28 kilos for a luxury car.

Electrical Equipment
Motors, alternators, actuators and electrical chokes, and the wiring harness itself, all depend on reliable high conductivity (see Pub 122). More copper will be needed as automotive electrical developments increase awareness, safety and automation. High quality brass has the long-life springiness and resistance to corrosion that makes it ideal for electrical connections (see Pub 117).

Car designers and manufacturers are constantly developing electronic applications which rely on the electrical conductivity of copper:

Sensors (pressure, temperature, speed)
Sensors for the automotive industry make up around a third of the global sensor market. With a true sensory system for the car, the sensors allow, for example, dangers on the road to be detected, braking to be adapted, the temperature inside to be controlled, self-diagnosis tests to be run on the vehicle. They make use of copper, notably, in the coils and cables.

ABS or Antilock Braking System
This was one of the first ‘smart’ technologies, designed to make driving safer by adjusting the braking depending on the grip. Since then, a whole series of innovations have expanded the solutions available with regard to braking and road grip, including EBD (Electronic Brake-force Distribution) for improved distribution of the brake force or ESC (Electronic Stability Control) that enhances the stability of the car.

Driving Controls
More than a mere speed regulator, the AICC (Autonomous Intelligent Cruise Control) allows a speed previously set by the driver to be maintained without having to keep the foot on the accelerator. A technology available on top of automatic transmission, the AICC monitors the speed of the vehicle in front and changes its own speed accordingly, while keeping a good safety distance.

The car is now much more than a pure means of transportation. It is designed to be comfortable and equipped with work and leisure spaces. Thanks to an ever increasing number of applications that exploit copper’s benefits, the seats are able to remember and automatically adjust to the passenger thanks to an array of small motors. Automatic temperature controls keep the interior at a comfortable level and telecommunications are accessible from even the most modest cockpits (hands-free mobile phones, navigation assistance, security trackers, DVD players and even internet connectivity). Copper has opened up a new window onto the world.

In the future, it is likely we will have an autopilot system driven by accelerometers, combined with actuators that will control driving, speed and braking. 360° radar and cameras will keep a constant eye on traffic and the vehicle’s position. Connecting the myriad of connectors, sensors, mini-computers and advanced telecommunications systems, nestling under the bonnet of our smart cars, it will be copper wires that will carry the key power and data signals that will deliver all of the above benefits.

Reducing Emissions
Copper has an important role to play in systems designed to reduce petrol consumption and CO2 emissions. Direct injection systems allow a more precise control of the air to petrol ratio, thereby cutting fuel consumption and exhaust emissions. Traditional camshafts are also slowly being replaced with electronic valves that further improve engine efficiency.

Copper has a role to play in hybrid and fuel cell vehicles and researchers are actively looking at new propulsion systems. Firstly, hybrids which combine conventional combustion engines with electric motors can provide an interim solution. Conventional fuels are used for long journeys and the electric motor for the urban environment. Secondly, work is being done to develop fuel cell driven engines, a solution that creates almost no pollution. These two different systems, both with their powerful electric motors, can contain up to 12 kg of copper.

Heat Exchangers
A new heat exchanger has been developed using CuproBraze® technology, a cost-effective, environmentally friendly process, low in investment cost. It produces strong, reliable brazed copper/brass radiators with performance and cost advantages over aluminum radiators.

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Copper Compounds