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  1. Which is the better copper alloy for use in seawater?
  2. What is Nordic gold?
  3. Which copper alloys are the best bearing materials?
  4. I am producing electrical connectors with a requirement for good springyness and fatigue resistance.I am also concerned about the effects of corrosion. What should I use?
  5. I have a requirement to produce a large number of intricate machined components in high conductivity copper, CW004A (C101). I have had some difficulty in machining; is there an alternative grade of copper I could use?
  6. I intend to use copper as a cladding material but I do not want to wait for the natural patina to form. What do you suggest that I might use?
  7. I am a manufacturer of hose end couplings in brass used in an oil refinery. They are subject to salt spray. What brass should I use?
  8. I am producing door lock parts in brass. What grade should I use?
  9. Which material is used for vehicle brake pipes?
  10. I am very impressed by the electric super trams in cities such as Manchester and Sheffield which provide clean efficient transport. Are the overhead contact wires made from pure copper?
  11. What copper alloys have been used for splash zone protection?
  12. Is there a modern equivalent of copper bottoming for hulls of ships?
  13. I have been offered electrical grade copper tube C101 (CW004A) instead of C106 (CW024A). Is this acceptable?
  14. We have supplied hard drawn copper wireC106 (CW024A) to a customer who is making springs. We have achieved a tensile strength of 370N/mm2 but he requires a much higher value. What is your suggestion?
  15. We are experiencing difficulty with the performance of copper washers (C106 CW024A) in service. In some cases they are too soft and they flow whilst others are so hard that they do not form a seal. What do you suggest?
  16. I require an aluminium bronze with a very low iron content (0.5-0.7%). The application is a holder in an induction furnace. It is important that the holder does not become heated during in service.

Q Which is the best copper alloy for use in seawater?

A Aluminium bronze and copper-nickel are the most frequently used. Gunmetals, phosphor bronzes and high tensile brasses can also be used.

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Q What is Nordic gold?

A This alloy, used for the new European coins for 10, 20 and 50 cent pieces, has been developed by Outokumpu. The composition is 89% copper, 5% aluminium, 5% zinc and 1% tin.

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Q Which copper alloys are the best bearing materials?

A Bearing materials must be strong but have low friction co-efficiency - see CDA Pub 45 Copper Alloy Bearings.open pdf

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Q I am producing electrical connectors with a requirement for good springiness and fatigue resistance. I am also concerned about the effects of corrosion. What should I use?

A A good choice would be tin plated (2-6 microns) phosphor bronze strip, CuSn4 (CW450K).

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Q I have a requirement to produce a large number of intricate machined components in high conductivity copper, CW004A (C101). I have had some difficulty in machining; is there an alternative grade of copper I could use?

A Yes, use copper tellurium, CW118C (C109) which has excellent machinability with only a slight loss of conductivity.

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Q I intend to use copper as a cladding material but I do not want to wait for the natural patina to form. What do you suggest that I might use?

A Copper sheet is available in pre-patinated form. As well as green, other attractive colours such as brown, gold and silver are available. See www.tecu.com and www.luvata.com.

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Q I am a manufacturer of hose end couplings in brass used in an oil refinery. They are subject to salt spray. What brass should I use?

A Use a corrosion resistant leaded naval brass,CW 712R (CZ112).

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Q I am producing door lock parts in brass. What grade should I use?

A You require a high tensile brass with good machinability. Use CW721R (CZ114).

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Q Which material is used for vehicle brake pipes?

A Copper and copper-nickel tubes are used for vehicle brake pipes due to their good fatigue and corrosion resistance (especially against salt on the roads), where fluid loss could be disastrous. Because of their ductility they are also easy to fit; they are standard equipment for many cars, fire engines, military vehicles, JCBs and other heavy vehicles.

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Q I am very impressed by the electric super trams in cities such as Manchester and Sheffield which provide clean efficient transport. Are the overhead contact wires made from pure copper?

A No, pure copper would be too weak for this application. The wires are either copper silver or copper cadmium which combine good conductivity and tensile strength.

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Q What copper alloys have been used for splash zone protection?

A Nickel-copper alloy 400 and 90-10 copper-nickel are the alloys which have performed well in this application.

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Q Is there a modern equivalent of copper bottoming for hulls of ships?

A Yes 90-10 and 70-30 copper-nickel have been used in plate form for solid hulls, 90-10 copper-nickel has been used as clad steel plate and as an adhesively backed foil for protection of boat hulls.

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Q I have been offered electrical grade copper tube C101 (CW004A) instead of C106 (CW024A). Is this acceptable?

A Yes, the mechanical properties are identical. Take care if you braze the tubes, use an oxidising flame.

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Q We have supplied hard drawn copper wireC106 (CW024A) to a customer who is making springs. We have achieved a tensile strength of 370N/mm2 but he requires a much higher value. What is your suggestion?

A You have reached the limit with C106 copper. Cold drawn phosphor bronze wire is capable of much higher strengths up to 600N/mm2.

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Q We are experiencing difficulty with the performance of copper washers (C106 CW024A) in service. In some cases they are too soft and they flow whilst others are so hard that they do not form a seal. What do you suggest?

A You have the correct grade of copper. I suggest that you require the half hard condition This is expressed now as H065 in EN1652. The hardness range given is 65 to 95 HV. You should carry out periodic hardness tests.

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Q I require an aluminium bronze with a very low iron content (0.5-0.7%). The application is a holder in an induction furnace. It is important that the holder does not become heated during in service.

A Suggest NES 834 which is a naval grade of aluminium bronze with a low magnetic permeability. This meets MOD requirements.

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